Coastal floodplains in Bangladesh experienced increasing problems of salinity, water logging, drought, and over-exploitation of natural resources in the last two decades. This has increased the vulnerability of the extreme poor. Extension targeted at individual farmers will not be sufficient under this situation. Instead, what is needed is a well co-ordinated approach to improve water management based on participatory planning involving farmers and landless. In this Good Practice Note, Dr Parvin Sultana reflects on the experience of promoting technical and institutional innovations to bring about livelihood improvements among the extreme poor.