This guide explores the climate-smart intensification of upland and lowland crop production systems in the dry-zone of Sri Lanka and provides technical guidance to achieve the productive objectives of selected strategic crops (as deemed relevant by the Government of Sri Lanka). The first edition focuses on maize and groundnut upland production systems and on rice lowland production. It provides a quick reference for information on crop production and soil management, including crop varieties, nutritional requirements and field equipment. As climate change will result in wider and more severe occurrences of plant pests, the guide relies on integrated pest management practices adapted to climate change. Optimizing the production of these crops calls for the diversification of crop systems using intercrops and cover crops. Additionally, sustainable mechanization is regarded as an essential agricultural production input to optimize labour and land productivity for the sustainable and profitable development of the agriculture sector. Therefore, the guide describes the innovative equipment needed for the sustainable optimization of crop production. To ensure coherent guidance and advice on sustainable farming practices, inputs and technologies, the guide has been developed in cooperation with all stakeholders working in the agriculture sector of Sri Lanka.