Rapid urban growth in Sri Lanka has posed a number of problems. Food and construction are two major sources of green house gas emissions, including those generated through transports. Large areas of agricultural land has been converted for residential and commercial land uses, significantly altering natural water flows and drainage. This coupled with an increase in average rainfall as well as heavy rainfall events, has resulted in recurrent flooding and related damages to infrastructure, utility supply and the urban economy. This brief illustrates how the Western Province is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods.