Collaborations across disciplines is key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals because attainment of one goal could be contingent on achievements in other goals. For example, SDGs relating to water, food and energy are climate dependent and, therefore, cannot be effectively achieved without addressing climate change. Specifically, achieving SDG 1 and 2 in Nepal requires
sustained agricultural growth and increased productivity. In view of growing climate risks, this can be possible only when investments
are made in agriculture programmes that deliver climate-resilient services and outcomes. Effective monitoring and evaluation is important to provide feedback on the impacts of investment and assist decision makers to tailor responses to emerging climate risks that may vary significantly locally and across regions.
Collaborative research understood broadly as researchers working together to achieve the common goal(s) of producing new understanding or knowledge for addressing specific gaps. It is an approach where government and the civil society organizations (CSOs) (Box 1) can work together to generate insights on the impacts of climate investments to improve their effectiveness. Collaboration with CSOs can assist government agencies to undertake informed analyses and improve effectiveness of climate investments by building on the comparative advantages of knowledge, resources, outreach and independence that CSOs bring to their work.