In theory, under the federal structure agricultural extension services can serve communities better as it aims to be client responsive and accountable to its consumers at the village level. However, poor understanding of federalism that has only recently emerged from the persisting centralized and feudal conceptions, limited practices of democratic norms and values primarily due to the lack of understanding of local governance, and limited commitment of political actors and policy makers to federalism, may derail the good intentions behind federalism. The dividends of state restructuring take time to be realized, and state restructuring should be given sufficient time to deliver. Despite some limitations, Nepal’s considerable experience with local governance and decentralization will hopefully facilitate its adaptation to the new federal structure.
AESA Working Paper 5 Agricultural Extension in Nepal under Federalism, Mahesh Jaishi, Purna B Nepali, Lochana Shahi, August 2018